- The polishing of metal to either enhance it, prevent corrosion or eliminate bacteria or mould, results in the effluent.
- The confined area of a metal polishing industry makes it critical that the effluent be treated effectively and completely removed. The effluent has to be treated and contained before being discharged into natural streams or being recycled
- International quality control, environmental legislation and pressure to re-use water are contributing factors.
- The liberation of high oxidizing carcinogenic metals all plays a vital role within the industry. This includes Cr⁶⁺, nickel, zinc, lead, copper, arsenic and similar
contaminants. These products all have the ability to sterilize a normal bacteriological sewage treatment plant.
- High discharge penalties were incurred.
- Effluent volumes resulted in unpleasant odours and water discolouration.
- CIP wash model also contributed to the quality of water and contamination thereof.